Physiological adaptations to swimming in teleost fish
Swimming is an integral behaviour of fish that is powered by the activity of skeletal muscle. We are interested in elucidating the molecular and cellular adaptive mechanisms that take place in skeletal and cardiac muscle to swimming-induced contractile activity in fish. We are using biochemical, cellular and transcriptomic (microarray, RNAseq) techniques to investigate the response of skeletal and cardiac muscle to swimming in vivo and to electrical stimulation of muscle cells in vitro. Among the many potential muscle factors that mediate the metabolic and growth promoting effects of contractile activity in skeletal and cardial muscle in fish, we are particularly interested in the role and regulation of AMP-dependent protein kinase, a well known “energy sensor” in the mammalian skeletal muscle, and of muscle-derived cytokines (“myokines”), such as interleukin-6 or interleukin-15. These studies are being performed using trout, a species that is representative of a group of fish (i.e. salmonids) known for their formidable capacity to swim and migrate over large distances, and also using zebrafish, a model species.
Palstra AP, Rovira M, Rizo-Roca, D, Torrella JR, Spaink HP, Planas JV. Swimming-induced exercise promotes growth and vascularization of fast skeletal muscle by activation of myogenic and angiogenic transcriptional programs in adult zebrafish. BMC Genomics. 2014. 15: 1136.
Magnoni LJ, Palstra AP, Planas JV. Fueling the engine: induction of AMP-activated protein kinase in trout skeletal muscle by swimming. J Exp Biol. 2014. 217: 1649-1652.
Magnoni LJ, Crespo D, Ibarz A, Blasco J, Fernández-Borràs J, Planas JV. Effects of sustained swimming on the red and white muscle transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a carbohydrate-rich diet. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 2013. 166: 510-521.
Palstra AP, Beltran S, Burgerhout E, Brittijn SA, Magnoni LJ, Henkel CV, Hansen HJ, van den Thillart GE, Spaink HP, Planas JV. Deep RNA sequencing of the skeletal muscle transcriptome in swimming fish. PLoS One. 2013. 8(1):e53171.
Castellana B, Marín-Juez R, Planas JV. Transcriptional regulation of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) interleukin-6 gene promoter. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013. 35: 71-78.
Magnoni LJ, Vraskou Y, Palstra AP, Planas JV. AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of glucose metabolism in fish skeletal muscle cells. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2): e31219.
Felip O, Ibarz A, Fernández-Borràs J, Beltrán M, Martín-Pérez M, Planas JV, Blasco J. Tracing metabolic routes of dietary carbohydrate and protein in rainbow trout using stable isotopes (13C-starch and 15N-protein): effects of gelatinization of starches and sustained swimming. British Journal of Nutrition. 2012; 107: 834-844.
Palstra AP, Planas JV. Fish under exercise. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2011; 37: 259–272.
Palstra AP, Tudorache C, Rovira M, Brittijn SA, Burgerhout E, van den Thillart GE, Spaink HP, Planas JV. Establishing zebrafish as a novel exercise model: swimming economy, swimming-enhanced growth and muscle growth marker gene expression. PLoS One. 2010;5(12): e14483.
Palstra AP, Crespo D, Van den Thillart GE, Planas JV. Saving energy to fuel exercise: swimming suppresses oocyte development and down-regulates ovarian transcriptomic response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010; 299: R486-R499.